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Uncategorized July 18, 2023

Parathyroid Glands And Pancreas- Hormones

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Parathyroid Glands And Pancreas- Hormones. After the pituitary gland and thyroid gland, we will go through the parathyroid gland and pancreas.

The hormones they secrete and what will happen if those hormones are over secreted or under secreted.

Let’s go over it.

Parathyroid Glands

There are four parathyroid glands in humans and all of them are located on the thyroid gland.

They are small, light colored masses.


This is the single and most important hormone of the parathyroid gland.

It controls the level of calcium in blood.

Its release is triggered by low calcium levels and is inhibited by high calcium levels.

Parathormone works antagonistically to calcitonin.

Over secretion results in a parathyroid gland tumor.

It releases the calcium from the bones, which then tends to soften and leads to fracture.

The release of calcium also results in the kidney stones as it accumulates in the kidney.

Under secretion leads to the excitability of neurons which then leads to tetany where muscles stay in contracted position.

If untreated, it can be fatal.


Pancreas is composed of two types of tissues.

Exocrine tissue produces and secretes digestive juice while endocrine tissue are distributed in the form of patches called Islets of langerhans.

Islets of langerhans secretes two hormones, insulin and glucagon.


It is secreted by beta cells that are larger in number.

These cells respond directly to the level of blood glucose.

Insulin is secreted when glucose levels are high in the blood such as right after the meal.

It promotes the uptake of glucose by body cells and skeletal muscles and also promotes conversion of glucose to glycogen.

The under secretion leads to diabetes mellitus which is characterized by high glucose level in blood and urine.

Over secretion leads to the upset nervous system and muscles functioning.


Parathyroid Glands And Pancreas- Hormones. This hormone is secreted by alpha cells that are less in number.

It is secreted when blood glucose is low in level and its secretion is also stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.

Its role is to increase the blood glucose level.

It works antagonistically to the insulin and thus reverses activities performed by insulin.

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