Disorders of the nervous system may be classified as vascular, infectious, structural, functional, and degenerative.
The site of involvement is also considered.
The causes, symptoms, and treatments of each disorder will be discussed here.
So stick around.
Vascular Disorder Of The CNS
A disorder due to abnormality in blood circulation is called a vascular disorder.
Occurs due to rupture of small cerebral arteries.
Cause- Hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, high alcohol intake, thrombosis, blood disorders, blood embolism, and cocaine abuse.
Symptoms- Sudden loss of function in one region of the brain, weakness, and heaviness in the arm, leg, or face.
Aphasia (inability to express through words) might occur as well.
Treatment- Anticoagulants and platelet aggregation inhibitor like aspirin is recommended.
Blood pressure management and nursing care are essential.
Infectious Disorder Of The CNS
These disorders are caused by infectious agents like viruses, bacteria, or fungi.
Inflammation of meninges is known as meningitis.
Cause- Bacterial or viral infection of meninges.
Symptoms- Stiffness in the neck, headache, and fever.
It can also cause paralysis, coma, or even death.
Treatment- For viral meningitis, there is no specific treatment however for bacterial meningitis, antibiotics and steroids are used.
Structural Disorders Of The CNS
Disorders that disturb the structure of the brain are referred to as structural disorders.
An abnormal mass of neuroglial cells produced as a result of uncontrolled cell division.
Cause- It is caused by a mutation in genes, which has nothing to do with the age factor.
Symptoms- It can vary widely, but common symptoms include headaches, severe nerve pain, paralysis, seizures, coma, and death.
Treatment- Surgical removal of the tumor.
Functional Disorder Of The CNS
Headache includes pain from anywhere in the region of the head to the neck.
The brain tissue itself is not sensitive to pain as it lacks pain receptors but the pain is caused by disturbance of pain-sensitive structures around the brain.
There are two categories of this condition.
- Primary headaches- These occur due to the condition itself and not due to another cause. Like migraine, or tension headache.
- Secondary headaches- These are due to an underlying structural problem in the head or the neck, such as bleeding in the brain, tumors, meningitis, etc.
Treatment- Analgesic drugs are prescribed for any kind of headache.
Degenerative Disorder Of The CNS
Diseases that cause degeneration in the parts of the brain without any external or internal cause are known to be degenerative disorders.
Genetic factors might be involved.
This disease is a slowly progressive disease that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually disturbance in reasoning, planning, language, and perception.
This disease occurs in aged people mostly but it is associated with aging.
Cause- Genetic disposition that tends to run in families.
Symptoms- Loss of short-term memory.
Treatment- No effective treatment is present for this.