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Uncategorized June 17, 2023

Brief Introduction To The Nervous Systems And Their Functions

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Brief Introduction To The Nervous Systems And Their Functions. Ever thought about how everything you do and all that happens inside of your body is so balanced and controlled? 

Your nervous system plays a major role in keeping all the processes balanced. 

From maintaining internal body temperature to letting you breathe it’s all done by your nervous system. 

What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System And Its Function

Are you looking for some information regarding the human body? 

 You gotta start with the nervous system which pretty much controls all of it.

 The nervous system in the human body enables communication and coordination between different parts of the body.

 Isn’t it insane how this system controls all of your actions, but how? 

Let’s divide this into two parts: The central nervous system (CNS) and the Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

  1. Central nervous system: 
  • Brain: The brain is the part of the nervous system which controls all the functions of your body. It’s the commander that processes sensory information, takes actions, and allows cognitive functions like memory and emotion. 
  • Spinal cord: spinal cord transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body. 

Thinking about its look? 

It is long in length and cylindrical in shape.

Also, it appears in a bundle form of nerve fibers.

Moving to our next type which has got some real spice cause it has too many parts and types.

  1. Peripheral nervous system
  • Nerves: 

           Nerves are also called neurons which are specific types of cells that transmit signals between the CNS and other parts of the body. They pass sensory information to CNS and transmit motor commands from CNS to all the organs and muscles present in your body.

Now Nerve is all understood but Are there any kinds?

 Oh Yes, there are two main types.

 . Cranial Nerve:  Cranial nerves enter from the base of the brain and connect to all the head, neck, and face structures. They are a pair of 12 nerves controlling your vision, hearing, and facial movements.

. Spinal Nerve:  Spinal nerves have the sensory information that they carry from your body to CNS. There are 31 pairs emerging from the spinal cord.

  1. Autonomic nervous system:

This regulates all the body functions like heart rate and digestion which is involuntary. 

    We are gonna divide it into Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

  •   Sympathetic nervous system: your body’s fight or flight response is activated by this system. It makes your body ready for any emergency condition.
  •  Parasympathetic nervous system: 

  This is responsible for promoting rest and relaxation in your body.

What Are The Major Parts Of The Nervous System And Its Function

The nervous system is closely a very interesting part of your body as it controls your actions and you don’t even know that.

Does it have any parts? 

It has major parts and every part has its specific function.

  1. Brain: the brain is the controller as it receives and processes sensory organs’ information.

What after that? 

  It begins voluntary movements and regulates the functions of your body.

  1. Spinal cord: spinal cord makes communication between the brain and the rest of the body. It is long starting from the base of the brain to down the back.
  1. Nerves:  Nerves are called neurons which are a special type of cells that transmit signals between body parts and the CNS. Nerves help in communication.
  1. Sensory organs: All the information of sensory organs like eyes for vision, tongue for taste, and ears for hearing is received and transmitted  to the brain by these organs 
  1. Motor system: All voluntary movements are controlled by motor systems including the motor cortex of the brain. 
  1. Autonomic nervous system: the maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of all involuntary body functions are controlled by ANS. 
  1. Enteric nervous system: digestive system of your body is controlled by ENS. 

What Are 5 Major Functions Of The Nervous System?

Sensory function

All the information from sensory organs like the eyes, nose, and ears is received by the nervous system. It detects stimuli and then transmits them to the brain for processing so that you can understand what is happening in the environment.


When the nervous system receives sensory information the brain understands and detects that and helps you in making a decision or solving the problem depending on the situation in the surrounding.

Motor function:

The voluntary and involuntary actions you do are also controlled by the nervous system. Motor neurons transmit signals from the brain and spinal cord and send them to muscles starting movements.

 You walk and talk to make facial expressions because of the motor neurons.


Your body needs a stable internal environment to function properly. The nervous system controls and regulates that environment. It maintains heart rate, respiration, digestion, and other body processes.

Higher cognitive function: 

Your learning, language, and memory are all. cognitive functions which are very crucial and valuable. The nervous system supports these functions. The brain’s complex network of neurons helps us to gain knowledge, remember things, and feel emotions. 

What Are The Parts Of The Central Nervous System And Their Functions

The nervous system has two components

  1.    Brain 
  2.    Spinal cord

Both parts have their structure and functions.


Cerebrum:  all the cognitive functions like perception, thinking, and learning are controlled by the cerebrum. 

Cerebrum has two hemispheres; we can divide them into lobes which also control separate functions.


 It is found in the backside of the brain. It coordinates all voluntary muscle movements, balance, posture, and motor skills.


The connectivity of the brain to the spinal cord is done by the brainstem. 

 It has three more parts.

The Medulla oblongata is responsible for controlling all the important functions that your body does like breathing, heart rate, etc.

Pons is the second part that maintains your respiration, facial expressions, sleep schedule, etc.

The midbrain coordinates the sensory functions and motor functions adding visual. and auditory reflexes.

Spinal cord: 

                   Spinal tracts:  All the sensory and motor tracts come under the spinal cord which transmits signals between brain and body. The information is carried by sensory tracts while the motor tract sends all the commands given by the brain to muscles and glands.

Reflex arcs:

            Any reflex action that is generated is begun by the spine. cord without involving your brain.

    The CNS’s responsibility is to coordinate information from PNS beginning correct responses. 

All the voluntary, involuntary movements, are processed by CNS. 

What Are The 3 Main Parts Of The Nervous System And Their Functions

  1. Central nervous system: 

A brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for:

  • Integration: the sensory information from your body and surrounding is received by CNS it helps in decision-making, learning, etc.
  • Control: your voluntary and involuntary actions are controlled by CNS. It maintains internal body temperature keeping everything in balance.
  • Cognition: your memory, attention, language, and other cognitive functions are controlled by CNS.
  1. Peripheral nervous system: 

It has nerves and ganglia which are found outside the CNS. The CNS is connected to the rest of the body with the help of PNS.

PNS gets sensory information from organs and sends it to CNS for further processing.

The motor signals are transmitted to muscles and glands by pNS. It allows all voluntary movements and controls involuntary movements.

The involuntary body functions such as digestion, and respiration,  are controlled by the autonomic nervous system.

  1. Enteric nervous system:  

All the gastrointestinal system functions are regulated by ENS. 

The movement of food through the digestive tract and secretion of digestive enzymes is controlled by ENS.

ENS also balances and regulates emotions and mood, influencing brain functions.

Brief Introduction To The Nervous Systems And Their Functions. These are the three parts that work to regulate, control, and balance so many things in your body you have no idea about.

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