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Uncategorized July 18, 2023

Adrenal Glands And Gonads- Hormones

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Adrenal Glands And Gonads- Hormones. The last two glands that are left to discuss are adrenal glands and gonads.

We will discuss hormones and its effects of over secretion and under secretion.

Adrenal Glands

Each of the two adrenal glands rests on a kidney.

The inner portion is called medulla while the outer portion is called  cortex.

Epinephrine And Norepinephrine

These hormones are produced by the medulla.

These hormones are released under the state of emergency, meaning under the influence of the sympathetic nervous system.

Both are involved in the body’s immediate response to stress.

Epinephrine stimulates metabolic activities, bronchial dilation, and increased blood flow to the skeletal muscles.

Norepinephrine has greater influence on peripheral vasoconstriction.

Over secretion of these hormones cause hypertension and aggressive behavior during daily routine.

Under secretin causes failure to combat emergency situations.

Cortisone And Aldosterone

These two major hormones are released by the cortex.

Cortisone helps to regulate the blood glucose level.

Aldosterone helps to regulate the levels of minerals in the blood.

Both are produced under the influence of ACTH.

Under secretion of cortical hormones will lead to Addison’s disease which is characterized by general metabolic disturbance, weakness of muscle action, and loss of salts.

Stress situations such as rise or drop in temperature may lead to collapsing over and death.

Over secretion of these hormones causes Cushing’s disease which is characterized by excessive protein breakdown that results in muscular and bone weakness.


This hormone is also released in small amounts by adrenal glands.

Its major site is testis but it is also released in small amounts in females.


Gonads are special endocrine glands which produce gametes alongwith hormones as well.

Female gonads are ovaries while male gonads are testes.


This female gland secretes progesterone and estrogen.

Estrogen is secreted by graafian follicles.

It is secreted at the time of puberty and is responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics in females.

It aids in healing and repair of uterine wall after menstruation.

If it is under secreted, young females fail to mature sexually.

Under secretion in adult females leads to sterility.

Over secretion leads to polycystic ovaries and abnormal growth in the uterus.

Progesterone is secreted by corpus luteum during the normal menstrual cycle.

But is produced and released form placenta during pregnancy

It causes thickening of the uterus wall to maintain the state of pregnancy.

Under secretion of this hormone during menstruation may delay the chances of pregnancy and can cause early menstruation.

Under secretion during pregnancy may lead to miscarriage.


Adrenal Glands And Gonads- Hormones. These are male gonads that produce sperm and testosterone.

During puberty, testosterone initiates maturation of male sex organs and the appearance of secondary sex characteristics along with sex drive.

It is also necessary for normal sperm production and maintains the reproductive organs in their mature functional state.

Under secretion causes development of feminine characteristics and male sterility.

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